The new rule proposed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) on August 9, 2018 would result in significant changes to the way the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) works for new Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) and those currently in a one-sided risk model. Under the current program, ACOs can enter the MSSP under an upside-only risk arrangement referred to as a Track 1 ACO for up to two three-year agreement periods. After that time the ACO is required to transition to a two-sided risk agreement or exit the program. However, the proposed rule would end the Track 1 program and replace it with a new five-year agreement called the BASIC track. This new track would transition from one-sided to two-sided risk throughout the agreement period. This change has the potential to significantly impact ACOs that were planning on entering the MSSP or renewing in Track 1 for their second agreement period by exposing them to two-sided risk earlier than expected.
The proposed BASIC track would consist of five levels that gradually increase the amount of risk and reward taken by the ACO. The first two levels, called “Level A” and “Level B” are identical one-sided models designed to allow new ACOs to establish themselves and gain familiarity with the program. Levels A and B are structured similarly to the current Track 1 program. After that there are three two-sided risk levels with progressively increasing amounts of risk and savings potential, called “Level C”, “Level D”, and “Level E”. Level E is similar to the current MSSP Track 1+ program, while Levels C and D have lower shared risk and savings potential. Each year, the ACO is automatically moved up one level in the progression until reaching Level E, where it would remain until the end of the five-year agreement period. The ACO can also choose to move into a higher level in the progression in any given year; however, once an ACO has moved up the automatic progression continues from its newly-selected level– the ACO cannot reverse or stop the progression. The only level an ACO can remain in for more than one year is Level E at the end of the progression, where the ACO would remain until the expiration of the five-year agreement.
Whether an ACO can enter into the BASIC track, and where they are eligible to enter, depends on its makeup and history in the MSSP. New ACOs are eligible to enter the BASIC track at Level A. New ACOs are defined as those where fewer than 50 percent of its participating physicians have recent experience as part of a Track 1 ACO. Current Track 1 ACOs and re-entering ACOs, those where greater than 50 percent of the participants have recent experience in a Track 1 ACO, are eligible to enter the BASIC track; however, they are required to enter at Level B. This restricts more experienced ACOs to a single year of one-sided risk as opposed to the two years that new ACOs can choose. The ability to renew into the BASIC track for a second agreement period depends on if the ACO is determined to be high or low revenue. Low-revenue ACOs can enter a second BASIC agreement period limited to Level E only. High revenue ACOs are required to move up to the ENHANCED track or exit the program at the conclusion of their first agreement period. Low revenue ACOs also have a lower loss sharing limit. More information about what qualifies an ACO as high or low revenue can be found here.
The proposed changes to the MSSP program have the potential to significantly impact both existing ACOs and those considering entering the program. For more detailed information on this proposed rule and its potential impact please click here.